SPECPR Users’ Manual                                                   Page 12.1



12.1 Introduction The extinction routines are used to correct astronomical data for the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere. The extinction analysis is a least squares fit of a straight line to the base 10 logarithm of the data versus airmass for each channel. The intercept and slope of the line, along with a goodness of fit (correlation coefficient), are stored for later extinction corrections with objects observed and is together called called a "starpack." Extinction analysis methods and examples can be found in

McCord, T.B., and R.N. Clark, Atmospheric Extinction 0.65-2.50 μm Above Mauna Kea, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac., 571-576, 1979. The extinction routines are accessed by typing


from Program Operations Control. The screen will then list available commands on the CRT.

12.2 Starpack List and Display Type


to list the starpack by title. You will then be instructed to input a record number (1 to 50) or type the number 0 to list all starpacks in the starpack file. Typing a number (1 to 50) will read that starpack into memory so that it can be displayed (see section 12.4). If zero was typed, the last starpack listed is in memory (assuming there is no I/O error).

IMPORTANT NOTE: If you have just created a new starpack, do not list the starpack file as this writes over the starpack in memory.

Note that, when reading a starpack from disk, you cannot do airmass versus log intensity plots because this information is not stored in the starpack. It is only stored in memory after an extinction calculation. In order to do these plots, or deletion and restoration of runs and channels (section 12.5), you must recreate the starpack from scratch using the data indicated in the history.

12.3 Extinction Calculation Type


to perform extinction calculations. The computer then asks the user for up to 20 spectra for extinction calculations. The data are input by typing in the file ID (v, w, u, y, or d) and the record numbers. The program is designed so that the user can type on one line as in the example:

w12 13 14 15 16v1 2 3 d4 5 6c.

Typing the file ID and then a string of numbers after the ID causes the program to store the string of numbers along with that file ID. When all files have been typed in, the user types


to indicate the finish. More than one line (at 80 characters per line) may be used. Note: At the beginning of a new line, a file ID must be typed; otherwise, erroneous record numbers will be stored. After typing in the data sets, the user is asked to type in a 24-character title for the starpack. After storing the title, the computer will read in the records and list the titles on the CRT, then calculate the extinction values (it takes a few seconds), and display the slopes in a CRT plot. At this point in extinction calculations, all the data are stored in memory and the extinction coefficients have been calculated, but the starpack has not been written to the starpack file. The user should look over the calculations using the CRT plot and then write the starpack on disc (see below). Possible deviations from normal operation:

If the number of spectral scans (revs) in each data set are not the same, the sets whose scans differ from the first set read in are flagged.

If a file ID has not been included, a read error is encountered, the list of options is displayed, and the user must begin again.

12.4 Extinction CRT Plot Because the extinction coefficients are in 3 arrays (slopes, intercepts, and goodness of fit), they are displayed one at a time on the CRT. When the plot routine is entered [automatically from extinction calculation or by typing


(for plot) from extinction commands], the slopes are displayed. The scale can be changed by typing


and the intercepts can be plotted by typing


and the goodness of fit can be plotted by typing a


command. The slopes can then be plotted again by typing an


command. A lineprinter plot can be made of either slopes, intercepts, or goodness of fit by typing


(note that the printer spooler must be assigned). To exit the plot routines, type an




command. Both these exit commands are the same since there can be no pending commands.

12.5  Airmass Versus Log Intensity Plots and Deletion
      and Restoration of Runs and Channels
      To investigate the fitted line, and the scatter in the data, the
airmass versus log intensity must be plotted.  To improve the fit,
entire runs or single channels must be deleted (and restored).


will call this routine.  The program will then ask you to type in a
channel number (with which an airmass versus log intensity plot is to be
made) or type


to delete runs and channels or


to restore runs and channels.
Up to 10 channels in each run can be deleted, or the entire run
can be deleted.  Because up to 20 data sets can be used to calculate
extinction, this routine refers to the sets as run numbers 1 to
20 in the order that they were typed in by the user.  To delete a
run, type the run number and 0.  The system then asks for n channel
numbers to be read in.  The whole procedure can be repeated until
the user has finished deletions.  A least squares fit is done in
this routine, and the routines list of options is displayed upon
completion.  The least squares fit takes a few seconds.
Selecting restoration causes the display of an array of numbers
that is 12 wide and 20 high.  The left-hand column is the run
number, and the column next to this gives the number of channels
deleted or, if the number is -1, it indicates that the run has been
deleted.  To restore a run, type in the run number and zero; to restore
a channel, type in the run number and the channel number.  This process
can be repeated, if necessary, and the array can be plotted out again
showing any changes.  When restoration is complete, a least squares fit
is applied, and the routines list of options is displayed.  The least
squares fit takes a couple of minutes.  To exit this routine, type e.
Note that no history is kept of runs and channels that are
deleted or restored.  There is a 592-character manual history
(see section 12.7) for any notes or listing runs and channels which
have been deleted, but the user must do this manually.

12.6  Writing a Starpack
After extinction calculations are finished, the starpack is
stored in memory but is not written to disc (to the starpack
file).  This is not done automatically because the user must look
over the data and decide whether to delete runs or
channels or whether or not the starpack is any good at all.  Thus,
the user must remember that an extinction
analysis has been completed and that the starpack must be written to the starpack
file.  (If you have been able to keep the slightest attention
while reading this manual, you will be able to remember when you
have finished an extinction analysis).  To write a starpack to
the starpack file, type an


You will then be asked for the record number (1 to 50).

12.7  Starpack Manual History
There is a 592-character (8 lines at 74 characters per line) manual
history for special notes or for listing runs and channels which have
been deleted.  Type


from the extinction routines section.  You will then be asked to
type in the line number or zero for all lines or


to exit the routine.